Happenings at the Crawford Auto-Aviation Preservation Center

As an organization we are very lucky to have an extensive workshop to take care of our ever-increasing fine collection of transportation artifacts. We not only take care of the daily needs of the static items on display, but we also currently maintain a significant group of vehicles that run, drive and head out into the public at various events, car shows and public engagements. This is no easy task for a non-profit and we rely heavily on the help of many skilled volunteers and their experience to do the ‘heavy lifting’ at the center. The volunteers bring a skill set that is as broad as it is deep. We have multiple engineers from all fields, skilled trades of all types, architects, dentists, machinists, machinery builders, painters, etc.  These fine people are the engine that continues to drive the machine at the center and enable us to continue to push forward with new and exciting additions to our collection. With a collection surpassing 175 transportation items in addition to the aircraft and motorcycles this is no easy task as far as upkeep and repair.

One of our items that needed major restoration and preservation work was our White Motors M2 Half Track from WWII. White Motors from Cleveland, Ohio started as a sewing machine company and eventually spread into an automotive company with their introduction of a steam powered automobile and heavy trucks for industry. As all major manufactures during this time period, war time production took precedence and White Motors built vehicles for the war effort churning out thousands of vehicles including various versions of half-tracks. The first thing we needed to do was asses the situation and formulate a plan to tackle the repairs. The situation was dire in some respects as we are always battling time and the availability of parts. The longer an item goes before having work performed, the harder, longer and more costly it is to locate the requisite parts.  With this piece of history approaching its 80th birthday, time was not on our side. 

Our inspection of the vehicle indicated quite a few areas that needed addressed initially. We had no operational power brakes and the unit had been bypassed for some reason in the past. All the grease fittings, bearings, spindles and rotating assemblies had grease that had hardened to the consistency of a solid resin. The drivetrain including the engine, transmission / transfer case and radiator was leaking profusely and required immediate attention. None of the gauges worked, the wiring was a disaster and was completely frayed, corroded or even nonexistent.  To add to those problems, various incorrect modifications were done to the armor and frame of the vehicle making it miss the mark of being a true example of a White manufactured war time M2 track. This vehicle was going to need some help, but luckily, we are equipped with an extensively equipped facility and an extremely enthusiastic crew. 

From Colonel to Keepsake

Nearly a century ago, a young man flew repeatedly across the length and breadth of North America with a lion cub in his cockpit for company. Largely a character of his own creation, ‘Colonel’ Roscoe Turner became a household name during a period when aviation was evolving as a viable method of international transportation, and the dashing pilots of the day became instant public heroes.

Unlike today, where celebrities are ‘famous for being famous’, the luminaries of the 1920’s and ‘30s actually were required to achieve something specific, especially the pilots, by extraordinary accomplishments and feats of daring. Altitude records, speed records, distance records, trans-oceanic flights; all were qualifiers for aviators willing to risk it all for a moment in the sun.

For World War I veteran Turner, his love of flying held the promise not only of notoriety, but a viable means of survival in an economically uncertain world. A master of self-promotion, Turner understood that an instantly recognizable persona was required to capture and hold the public’s attention, and he used his military-inspired uniform, diamond-studded pilot’s wings, waxed moustache, and lion mascot to great effect.

One of the West Coast’s largest oil refiners, the Gilmore Oil Company, became one of Roscoe’s early sponsors, and the aircraft he flew (and eventually raced) sported the company’s cream, red, and gold livery, while the brave little lion cub, who had his own custom parachute, was christened ‘Gilmore’.

A rapid way to achieve fame (and some fortune), was in the arena of air racing, with participation in popular events such as the Bendix Cup, Thompson Trophy, Schneider Cup, MacRobertson Trophy, and the Pulitzer Trophy. In North America, arguably the most prestigious venue was the National Air Races, held at the Cleveland Airport from 1929 onwards. During the week-long activities, hundreds of thousands of spectators from around the nation would gather to watch their heroes, like Roscoe Turner, defy death hurling their powerful racing planes around a ten mile course with fifty foot high pylons marking the turns. Some of the pilots did indeed perish pursuing victory, reminding all who participated that the stakes were incredibly high.

Turner, always striving for a competitive edge, struck a deal with Jimmy Weddell, a Louisiana racing plane manufacturer for one of his Weddell-Williams Model 44’s, a low-wing monoplane design powered by a Pratt and Whitney Hornet radial engine. The Model 44 was a proven design, having achieved a second place finish in the Thompson Trophy in 1931. Registered as NR61Y, Turner’s Model 44 appeared in Gilmore Oil colors for the 1932 Thompson, and eventually placed third, behind two other Model 44’s. 1933 saw Turner claim the top spot in the cross-country Bendix race, a first place in the Shell Oil Speed Dash, and a disappointing sixth in the Thompson after winning, then being disqualified. 1934 brought ultimate victory for NR61Y and Turner with an outright win in the Thompson Trophy, the climax of three years of hard work and innovation. The plane was repainted in the all-gold color scheme it wears today. The following year, Turner and the Model 44 took second in the Bendix Trophy, and by 1937 the aircraft was handed over to pilot Joe Mackey, as Turner was developing a new racer. NR61Y would continue to soldier on into 1939 where it continued to compete respectably in the Thompson.

Fast forward eighty years, when in 2019, the Hallmark Company produced a Christmas Ornament-sized replica of Turner’s Model 44, now registered as NX61Y, as it appeared in the late ‘30s. The miniature plane is part of the ‘Sky’s the Limit’ series of ornaments, and does a creditable job of depicting even the tiniest details of the original. It is fascinating that an aircraft that thrilled crowds so long ago remains in the public consciousness. The real Weddell-Williams Model 44, number NX61Y, is displayed prominently in the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, hanging from the ceiling in the attitude of banking around a racing pylon. She remains the only original Model 44 in existence, representing a page from the ‘Golden Age’ of air racing we’ll never see again.